What Should Be Done With the Women and Children of ISIS? 當戰士、自殺炸彈客、斬首者 伊斯蘭國孩子該如何安置?

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2019/05/31 第265期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
紐時周報精選 What Should Be Done With the Women and Children of ISIS? 當戰士、自殺炸彈客、斬首者 伊斯蘭國孩子該如何安置?
A Book Revives the Novelist's First Calling 馬奎斯:盼人們不是記得百年孤寂或諾貝爾獎 而是報紙
What Should Be Done With the Women and Children of ISIS? 當戰士、自殺炸彈客、斬首者 伊斯蘭國孩子該如何安置?
文/Vivian Yee


Many of them were barely school age when their parents took them to the Islamic State group's so-called caliphate in Iraq and Syria. Thousands of others were born there.


The children of the group's followers are the most vulnerable of the Islamic State's human leftovers — the remainders of the more than 40,000 foreign fighters and their families who came from 80 countries to help build the caliphate. Many are now detained in camps and prisons across eastern Syria, Iraq and Libya.


"What have these kids done?" said Fabrizio Carboni, a Red Cross official, after witnessing the misery surrounding him on a recent visit to Al Hol camp in Syria. "Nothing."


Yet even when it comes to the children, the foreign governments whose citizens are marooned in the camps and prisons have struggled with what to do with them.


The Islamic State group, researchers say, employed children as scouts, spies, cooks and bomb-planters, and sometimes as fighters and suicide bombers. Propaganda videos showed young children beheading and shooting prisoners.


Some have had years of ISIS indoctrination and, in the case of older boys, military training.


"They're victims of the situation because they went against their will," said Peter Neumann, director of the International Center for the Study of Radicalization at King's College London, "but that doesn't mean that they're not, in some cases at least, a risk."


If figuring out what to do with the children is that complicated, deciding what to do with the women and men is even more difficult.


There are at least 13,000 foreign ISIS followers being held in Syria, including 12,000 women and children. That number does not include the estimated 31,000 Iraqi women and children detained there. Another 1,400 are detained in Iraq.


But only a handful of countries — including Russia, Kosovo, Kazakhstan, Indonesia and France — have intervened to bring back some of their citizens.


The debate is more pressing than ever.


In overflowing camps in eastern Syria, the wives and children of ISIS fighters who fled the last shreds of ISIS territory are dying of exposure, malnutrition and sickness. Children are too spent to speak. Women who have renounced the group live in dread of attacks from those who have not.


The local militias running the camps say they cannot detain other countries' citizens forever.


Across the border in Iraq, government authorities are administering hasty justice to people accused of being Islamic State members, sentencing hundreds to death in trials that often last no longer than five minutes.


But most foreign governments are reluctant to take them back, leaving them international pariahs wanted by no one — not their home countries, not their jailers.



伊斯蘭國的滅亡留下許多棘手問題,如何處置遭俘虜或戰死的聖戰士的妻小為其中之一,文中以leftovers形容這群殘留者。此字的單數形式除了可當名詞外主要當形容詞「殘留的」使用,須放在修飾的名詞前面,如leftover pizza。若表示「殘湯剩飯」通常用複數:Give the leftovers to the dog.

Maroon當動詞使用,意指「使無處可逃」,常用被動語態,形容詞指「栗色、褐紅色」,最為人熟知想必是搖滾天團魔力紅(Maroon 5)了吧!

倒數第三段的spent是「極度疲憊的」,同段片語live/be in dread of代表「持續擔心害怕」:She lives in dread of (=is continuously very afraid of) the disease returning.

A Book Revives the Novelist's First Calling 馬奎斯:盼人們不是記得百年孤寂或諾貝爾獎 而是報紙
文/Dwight Garner

馬奎斯 更願留名於新聞業

Gabriel García Márquez, "Gabo" to his friends, lived for journalism. He wrote for newspapers and magazines his entire life, and he founded six publications himself. He once said, against the wisdom of the ages, "I do not want to be remembered for 'One Hundred Years of Solitude,' nor for the Nobel Prize, but for the newspapers."


García Márquez (1927-2014) inhaled fresh ink the way the press critic A.J. Liebling did, as if it were cigar smoke. He called journalism "the best job in the world" and "a biological necessity of humanity." He understood that newspapers and magazines not only deliver data but that they add, through commentary of all variety, to the gaiety of a society.


A resonant new collection of García Márquez's journalism, "The Scandal of the Century," demonstrates how seriously he took reportage and what's now sometimes called (would Liebling approve?) long-form narrative.


There are intricate, involving stories here about the death of a young woman who seemed to lead a double life; about the 1978 political siege of Nicaragua's Palacio Nacional by the Sandinistas; and about the international efforts to save a young boy who needed a hard-to-find rabies serum raced to him within 12 hours.


These are articles that, in their confidence and grace, put the reader in mind of "The Story of a Shipwrecked Sailor," the García Márquez book, first published in English in 1986, that was based on a series of articles he wrote for a Bogotá newspaper in 1955 in the voice of a Colombian sailor washed overboard from the deck of a destroyer.


Most of his journalism, like most of his fiction, is centered on his native Colombia. So many of the best pieces in "The Scandal of the Century," however, are essays, unpretentious and witty meditations on topics like barbers and air travel and literary translation and movies.


You get the sense that, were he allowed to start one last magazine from beyond the grave, García Márquez would edit a version of one of those casual publications, like The Spectator, The New Statesman or The Oldie, that the British do better than the rest of the world. Magazines, that is, composed entirely of commentary, the combined contents of whatever is on their columnists' minds.


"The Scandal of the Century" comprises 50 articles, published between 1950 and 1984. It's one of two new books that deal with García Márquez's work and life. The other is "Solitude & Company," a charming and rowdy if slight oral history of his life edited by Colombian journalist Silvana Paternostro and translated by Edith Grossman.



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